Encuentro Latinoamericano, Vol. 5 No. 1
Publication date: July 2018
Responsible: The IAPSS Academic Department, represented by Stephanie Mojica, Editor-in-Chief of Encuentro Latinoamericano and Mihai Sebastian Chihaia, Head of the Academic Department.
Copyright © 2018 International Association for Political Science Students (IAPSS). All rights reserved.
Included in this issue
by Mário Braga Magalhães Hubner Vieira
This paper aims to compare the changes in Brazilian foreign policy during moments of institutional rupture. To meet this objective, the author compares the policies adopted under President Itamar Franco (1992-1994) and President Michel Temer (2016-) regarding their respective predecessors. The goal is to identify to what extent moments of high political instability affected Brazilian foreign policy. To test this hypothesis, this research refers to the concept of “Critical Transition” coined by Alston et al. (2016), to the “two-level game” theory developed by Putnam (1988), and to studies about the influence of the Executive Branch over bureaucratic structures by Alden and Aran (2012). Building upon the methodology created by Hirst and Pinheiro (1995), a case study will cover specific aspects of Brazilian foreign policy in the two moments mentioned. Qualitative and quantitative conclusions suggest that the transitory governments led to significant change.
Brazil; Critical Transitions; Democracy; Democratic Transitions; Foreign Policy
by Victor Rodrigues and Bruna Veríssimo
This paper investigates how institutional actions regarding the use of emergency expenses leadership empowerment in current democratic regimes. It analyzes extraordinary credits, an instrument that allows emergency expenses in Brazil from 2001 to 2016. The country spent more than $200 billion through extraordinary credits in the period. The article presents data from 169 laws enacted by the president authorizing those credits and the restrictions made by the Supreme Court related to those laws. In 2008, for the first time in Brazilian history, the Supreme Court revoked one of those laws. Our models support that this decision: (i) caused a decrease in the number of laws authorizing extraordinary credits, (ii) led an increase in the monetary value authorized per law, and (iii) in the end, affected the total monetary sum authorized per semester.
Emergency Expenses; Extraordinary Credits; Institutional Design; Leadership Empowerment; Provisional Measures
by Andressa Liegi Vieira Costa
There are a few common characteristics when we speak about Latin America. One of them is that the region still faces challenges to improve and strengthen its democracy, such as corruption, distrust in traditional institutions of politics, and political polarization. Since democracy is not just made of formal aspects, this paper analyzes the relationships between political culture and democracy in Brazil and Colombia — countries that show low levels of citizen participation and apathy about politics. We conducted an empirical analysis using the 2015 Latinobarometer database to understand how citizens perceive and act in their democratic systems, comparing both countries. The countries present similarities in their political cultures despite their different historical backgrounds, specifically periods of violence in Colombia and times of the interruption of democracy in Brazil.
Brazil; Colombia; Democracy; Latin America; Political Culture
by Judith Möllhoff
The paper questions the status of indigenous peoples’ collective land rights in Brazilian constitutional legislation and in international law. First, it connects the desperate situation of the Guarani to the phenomenon of “land grabbing.” The main part discusses national and international legal regulations. It gives an overview of the development of international law and national sovereignty in the colonial context. Then, it critically discusses the process of Brazilian nation-building and the current Brazilian constitution. Next, it examines the international and regional treaties regulating indigenous peoples’ collective land rights and connects the reasons for state resistance to the theoretical debates. Finally, it addresses the question if demands for collective land rights can challenge the way national legal structures traditionally regulate land distribution and the power to decide over its development.
Brazil; collective rights; indigenous peoples’ rights; indigenous people’s rights; Guarani; legal history; sovereignty