Encuentro Latinoamericano, Vol. 3 No. 2

Publication date: December 2016


Responsible: The IAPSS Academic Department, represented by Melany Cruz, Editor-in-Chief of Encuentro Latinoamericano and Max Steuer, Head of the Academic Department.

Copyright © 2016 International Association for Political Science Students (IAPSS). All rights reserved.

Full Issue

Front Matter (Table of Contents, Editorial Note)

Call for Papers

Included in this issue

Original Articles

Tradiciones históricas en la formación del Estado ecuatoriano y sus incidencias en el fortalecimiento y modernización estatal del Presidente Correa (Todos los cambios, aun los más radicales, siguen grandes líneas de continuidad histórica)

by Julio Enrique Paltán López

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (2): 7-30


This article aims to contribute to studies of comparative history, and enrich political analysis by applying a historical perspective. It asks what are the traditions present in the political history of Ecuador that have most significantly influenced the current process of strengthening of the State undertaken by the Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa. The four traditions highlighted in the article are part of important constitutive moments of Ecuadorian State: authoritarian centralist Catholic modernization, liberal former President Eloy Alfaro, the national-popular caudillo tradition and the anti-oligarchic statist developmentalism. Applying historical institutionalism the features and acts of these traditions are identified. The analysis subsequently shows how most of them affect the reconstruction and State modernization undertaken by the President of Ecuador Correa.


development, state, history, institutions, modernization, reformism, tradition

Migration from Central America and Mexico to the United States: How Does the Movement of People Affect the Labor Market of the Sending Countries?

by Ana Magdalena Figueroa

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (2): 31-47


This article studies the dynamic effect of outmigration on the labor markets of the sending countries at two moments: when migrants leave their country of origin, and when they establish themselves in the new host country. Additionally, this research analyzes the effect on the labor market caused by low skilled and high skilled workers. This work is based on the New Economics of Labor Migration theory and uses Central America and Mexico as the sample. The data are analyzed through Feasible Generalized Least Squares and Panel Corrected Standard Errors. The results show that total migrant outflows and high skilled workers affects positively the employment in the sending countries. No statistically significant effect was found on wages. Finally, outmigration significantly affects national income, and a statistically significant positive effect was found when migrants arrive to the United States and begin to influence the sending countries as diasporas.


labor market, migration, sending countries

Environmental Licensing in Brazil: Revisiting the Borders between State and Civil Society

by Ariadne de Oliveira Santiago

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (2): 48-67


If the complex interactions between social and state actors generate a fluid understanding of the distinction between State and social movements, the difference of “challengers” and “challenged” postulated by the classic social movement literature is relativized. This research aims to identify what determines the boundaries between State and society. We maintain that there are structural differences between State and civil society, nevertheless, this separation is considered flexible because of the different political projects that transcend it. In order to understand the boundaries between State and social movements, it is necessary to consider the distinct political projects supported by actors inside the State, considering their institutional context. Through a qualitative case study of an institutional conflict, we have identified two main political projects supported by bureaucracy members of IBAMA – the Brazilian national institution for environment licensing –, and analyzed the institutional constraints they faced to defend their ideas.


bureaucracy, environmental licensing, political project, public policy, social movement

Conceptualizing Autonomy in Latin American Foreign Policy: Case Study of Brazil under the PT government (2003-2016)

by Igor Stipić

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (2): 68-88


The objective of this article is to conceptualize the meaning of autonomy as a practice of foreign policy. It firstly considers the historical development of this purely Latin American contribution to the theories of international relations, and posteriorly offers specific theoretical framework of autonomy that combines perspectives of realism, interdependency and structuralism. By considering the problematic of international insertion of peripheral countries, the autonomous behavior of Brazil during the Workers Party government (2003-2016) is analyzed as a specific case study. The behavior of distinct variables identified in the theoretical framework is offered as an explanation for changing degrees of autonomy exercised by Brazil during the period considered. Towards the end of the article, impediments that Brazil encounters on its path towards becoming a world power are put into perspective, concluding how this country, for depending on too many factors that are outside of its control, is only a pendulum power.


autonomy, Brazil, dependency, foreign policy, Partido dos Trabalhadores

Racial democracy myth and the (non) support for race-targeted policies in Brazil: evidences from a survey list-experiment

by Nathália F. F. Porto & Robert Vidigal

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (2): 89-107

This paper aims at understanding the strength of the main arguments of the racial democracy myth and its application on shaping Brazilian college students’ opinions on the adoption of affirmative actions on public universities. Through an experiment embedded in a survey, we look at the attitudes towards racial and social quotas expressed by college students from the University of Brasília and the Federal University of Minas Gerais, both public institutions in Brazil. The list-experiment technique guarantees the necessary privacy for the respondents to feel free to give honest answers, avoiding the social desirability effect. Empirical data support our hypothesis: the racial democracy myth depreciates racial attributes as explanatory factors to inequalities in Brazil, leaving them only to class and income features. Thus, the opposition to racial quotas is always higher than to social quotas, and social desirability effects affect both quotas systems.


affirmative actions, Brazil, list-experiment, public opinion, racial attitudes, racial democracy myth

Da interseccionalidade ao movimento feminista: uma tentativa de conceituação do feminismo enquanto movimento social (“From intersectionality to the feminist movement: an attempt at conceptualizing feminism as social movement”)

by Valéria Calvi Amaral Silva

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (2): 108-123


As a social movement, Feminism is an umbrella title under which many discourses and practices are grouped. Although gender is a defining, fundamental category as far as feminist organizations are concerned, its limitations can be brought to light via the concept of intersectionality. This concepts brings to our attention other elements which reveal the multiplicity inherent to woman considered as subject and, consequently, to feminisms in general. This poses a theoretical challenge to studies of feminism: since intersectionality takes as its premise the non-universality of the category “woman”, how are we to conceptualize the feminist movement as a social movement on intersectional grounds? In order to answer that question, I firstly survey the feminist organizations currently active in Brazil, and then, conceptualize the feminist movement as a social movement. In doing so, I aim to provide a theoretical contribution to a subject matter that is seldom tackled with due accuracy.


diversity, intersectionality, feminism, feminist movement, social movement