Encuentro Latinoamericano, Vol. 4 No. 2
Publication date: December 2017
Responsible: The IAPSS Academic Department, represented by Paulo Duarte, Editor-in-Chief of Encuentro Latinoamericano and Max Steuer, Head of the Academic Department.
Copyright © 2017 International Association for Political Science Students (IAPSS). All rights reserved.
Included in this issue
by Larissa Rodrigues Vacari de Arruda
Brazil passed through important institutional changes during the 20th century: an Oligarchic Republic, two dictatorships, and two democrat periods in 1934-1937 and 1945-1964; finally, the current Democracy started in the 1980s. The objective of this paper is to analyse the institutional changes that occurred within the Brazilian regimes between 1891 and 1967. Historical Institutionalism is the theoretical approach used. We argue that Brazilian politics displayed some characteristics that difficulted Democracy implementation. For instance, the Union controlled states and municipalities, while the Executive dominated the Legislative, in addition to restricting the opposition as well.
Institutional change, Historical Institutionalism, Brazilian politics, Federalism, Representative system, Powers organization
by Pedro Chapaval Pimentel & Luciana Panke
The General Debate at the United Nations General Assembly is an event that drives the diplomatic relations, by enabling UN Member States to adopt important stances regarding global matters. The article aims to analyse the first and last speeches delivered by President Dilma Rousseff in 2011 and 2015 at this forum. The methodology used is based on the social representations’ perspective proposed by Moscovici (2015) and structured by Guareschi and Maya (2000). The results point to discursive discontinuities regarding the female gender representation and to a continuity in the use of propagandistic and cooperation aspects as means to consolidate Brazil’s image in the international system.
Political Communication, Government Communication, Political Speech, Diplomatic Speech
by Alberto Vélez Valdés
Encuentro Latinoamericano, 4 (2): 39-57
This paper explains the democratic development in Latin American states during the period of 2002-2014, in a context of corruption perception and conventions against corruption. Applying a statistical analysis of both Democratic Development Index of Latin America and Worldwide Governance Indicators “Control of Corruption”, it proposes three hypotheses to explain Latin American democracy in relation with indicators that measure corruption perception and conventions that fight it. The results rejected them as they show a widespread trend of setback in both sources and a weak correlation between their differences during the period analysed. Corruption perception neither corresponds with the advances of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, the United Nations Convention Against Corruption nor with some of the national anti-corruption policies in Latin American states. The corruption perception is best determined by structural variables like social welfare and institutional quality.
Conventions against corruption, Corruption perception, Democratic development, Latin America
by Stéphanie Bacher
Encuentro Latinoamericano, 4 (2): 58-76
This paper aims at understanding the nature of the obstacles hindering environmental rights defenders’ political participation against mining companies in Guatemala. Through a case study of the social movement against the El Escobal mine, this paper highlights the continuity of past authoritarian practices against environmental rights defenders in the regions of Santa Rosa and Jalapa. These strategies, inspired by the National Security Doctrine, are still applied under old and new political institutions. These arguments are confirmed by the data collected through semi-structured interviews and secondary sources on this issue.
Authoritarian legacies, Foreign direct investment, Guatemala, Human rights, Political participation
by Tiago Vales & Joe Abdul Sater
Encuentro Latinoamericano, 4 (2): 77-92
Cyberspace and information technologies (ITs) have become essential to many of the activities of contemporary society. Mainly in the developed world, the daily practices have been linked to and served much of the facilities offered by ITs, making cyberspace a kind of support for the productive and social activities. While they maximise the ability of agents, these information tools also pose challenges to modern democracies. By asking how the discourse on the internet and cyberspace helped Brazil formalise its interests and policies domestically and abroad, this work argues that while Brazil started to formulate a set of rules for the cyberspace that could be understood as the approbation of the ‘Legal Framework for the Internet’, such legal code may contribute, at the same time, to a ‘securitisation’ of cyberspace.
Democracy, Cyberspace, Brazil, Internet, Security, Legal Framework, Securitisation, Desecuritisation