Encuentro Latinoamericano, Vol. 3 No. 1

Publication date: July 2016

doi: 10.22151/ELA.3.1

Responsible: The IAPSS Academic Department, represented by Melany Cruz, Editor-in-Chief of Encuentro Latinoamericano and Max Steuer, Head of the Academic Department.

Copyright © 2016 International Association for Political Science Students (IAPSS). All rights reserved.

Full Issue

Front Matter (Table of Contents, Editorial Note)

Call for Papers and Paper Requirements

Included in this issue

Original Articles

El indígena urbano: Análisis de la política pública para los pueblos indígenas de Antioquia. Antecedentes, logros y desafíos en el municipio de Medellín entre los años 2004 a 2015

by Luis Alejandro Rivera Flórez

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (1): 7-33
doi: 10.22151/ELA.3.1.1


This paper seeks to explore the impact in the indigenous community of Antioquia, Colombia, of the 032 Ordenanza of 2004 developed by the Municipal Department of Antioquia, since this urban territory does not have an agreement or public policy that can be use by members of these communities. The study develops through qualitative methodologies seeking to give an account of the views of those involved in the creation and implementation of policy (Government agencies as management indigenous) as in the members affiliated with the Association of indigenous councils of Antioquia, represented by the indigenous organization of Antioquia (OIA) in relation to the structural and cyclical elements, to the difficulties that has faced, and the achievements that has grown to generate inputs for the analysis and construction of public policies for communities differentiated cultural orientation for urban territories.


indigenous communities, public policy, urbanization, urban indigenous, ethnicity, culture

The influence of American Exceptionalism on Latin American foreign affairs: a case study of Guantánamo Bay, Cuba

by Inês Daniela Pereira da Costa

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (1): 34-49
doi: 10.22151/ELA.3.1.2


Since the inception of the United States, American Exceptionalism has played a decisive role in the mediation of relations both in the domestic and foreign spheres. This influential identity character is founded on the beliefs of American uniqueness and the sanctity of their mission, but has, nevertheless, acquired the status of a prevalent paradigm. It is, thus, a malleable state created fantasy capable of creating consensus among the American population, while also offering effective instruments of disavowal capable of exonerating significant state incongruences. Throughout the twentieth century American Exceptionalism has served as a powerful hegemonic discursive instrument, justifying countless interventions in Latin American foreign and domestic affairs. Cuba and Guantánamo Bay Naval Base provide a clear example of this course of action. The recent usage of this base on the War on Terror establishes that, despite recent criticism, U.S. hegemony is still operating in Latin America.


American Exceptionalism, foreign affairs, Guantánamo Bay Naval Base, enemy other, hegemony

A contra hegemonia das imprensas brasileira e venezuelana (1998-2013)

by Gabriela Pandeló Paiva

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (1): 50-62
doi: 10.22151/ELA.3.1.3


The aim of this paper is, by using Gramsci’s hegemony concept, to analyze Brazilian and Venezuelan media behavior by its political opinions. Gramsci’s theory claims that the media are hegemony’s private apparatuses whose purpose is to assure society’s intellectual and moral organization in order to obtain the consent about the dominant ideology. Brazilian media has a conservative and opinionative behavior in facing national politics. During Lula’s government, the media oppositional view was so strong that it received the title of “Partido da Imprensa Golpista – PIG” (Media’s Coup Party). In Venezuela’s case, the media became the Chávez-opposition representative and even organized a Coup d’état. This paper is divided in four parts, the first one being the presentation of Gramsci’s theory; second and third parts consist of case studies of Brazil and Venezuela. The final part presents the conclusions where it is possible to observe the ideological conflict between both States and their hegemony private apparatuses, the ideologies of which remain coupled with the previous historic blocs.


Brazil; Counter-hegemony; Coup; Gramsci; Media; Venezuela

The Awakening of Guatemalan Society: explaining the appearance of the social movement of 2015

by Silvia Sofía Montenegro Mejía and Edgar Gutiérrez

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (1): 63-81
doi: 10.22151/ELA.3.1.4


The aim of the research is to analyze the relationship between institutional political actors and the emergence of the recent social movement in Guatemala that demanded the resignation of the presidential binomial. The existing literature has focused primarily on understanding the emergence of social movements in Europe and the US. These studies cannot explain the emergence of social movements in other countries with different levels of development; they may even overestimate the importance of resources (Theory of Resource Mobilization) for the process of mobilization. This explains the lack of research on social movements in Latin America, especially in Central America. This work aims to fill the academic vacuum by using the Theory of Political Process which remains within the mainstream approach. The aim is to use a mixed method, using a Snowball Sampling to conduct deep-in interviews, and social media monitoring to understand how the investigation conducted by the Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) became the trigger that generate a favorable environment for the emergence of the social movement composed of grassroots activists. Another goal is to expand the scope of research by adding the role that social media, Facebook and Twitter, had in the mobilization process of the social movement, reducing the cost of organization and generate a unifying framing among its participants.


social movements, protest cycle, mobilization, political processes

O papel das coalizões de defesa da agricultura nas agendas da política comercial externa brasileira

by Ricardo Dias da Silva

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (1): 82-97
doi: 10.22151/ELA.3.1.5


The article examines the evolution of foreign policy-making in Brazil, in relation to political actors associated with the two main agricultural models that coexist within the country – Agribusiness and Family Farming. In this aspect, this work sheds light on the ongoing process of pluralization and politicization of foreign policy vis-à- vis disputes that mobilize different coalitions of political actors in the domestic realm. We combine elements from foreign policy analysis with instruments from the cognitive approach of public policy analysis, accepting that political actors embody ideas and policies are ideas put in action. As a result, we derive a theoretically oriented tracking of social processes to identify the main political actors of the two coalitions focused on, through highlighting the different paths of interaction and asymmetric degrees of openness and participation in the foreign policy-making.


public policy; organization of interests; Itamaraty; agriculture

Book Reviews

Coaliciones de independientes. Las reglas no escritas de la política electoral. Mauricio Zavaleta (2014)

by Ludmila Quirós

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (1): 99-100
doi: 10.22151/ELA.3.1.6

Avoiding Governors: Federalism, Democracy, and Poverty Alleviation in Brazil and Argentina. Fenwick, TB (2015)

by Andrés A. Sandoval

Encuentro Latinoamericano, 3 (1): 101-102
doi: 10.22151/ELA.3.1.7